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zadirr » Angličtina

Články v rubrice ‘Angličtina’


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Brussels versus Brothels


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Středa, 29. Únor 2012, rubrika Angličtina, Politika

Tak si tak dnes z jazykově-tréningových důvodů pouštím toto video, přednášku Michael O’Leary, generálního ředitele Ryanair…

…a napadly mě dvě věci. Jednak, jak moc je to k pláči, to co říká o Evropské komisi (ale to není žádné velké překvapení). A druhá věc, jak blízko k sobě mají anglická slova Brussels (tedy hlavní město nejen Belgie ale také všech evropských byrokratů) a brothel (tedy “bordel”, “nevěstinec”), zvláště množné číslo brothels. Napsáno na papíře to možná ještě není vidět, ale troufám si říct, že rozdíl ve výslovnosti musí občas být i pro rodilé mluvčí těžko rozpoznatelný: [brʌsəlz] versus [brɒθəlz]. Že by toto město bylo pro svou dnešní roli už nějak historicky předurčeno?

Mimochodem to video si pusťte, jsou tam i české titulky, a nejen že je panu O’Learymu docela dobře rozumět, nejen že hlavní myšlenka kterou prezentuje je opravdu na zamyšlení, ale hlavně je to vtipné :-)


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Rozdíl got vs. gotten


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Úterý, 7. Prosinec 2010, rubrika Angličtina

Vsadím dvě červené papriky a jednu zelenou, že 97 % českých učitelů angličtiny tohle neví…

Všichni víme, že sloveso get je nepravidelné. A ve všech slovnících je napsáno, že tvary jsou:

get - got -got

anebo

get - got - gotten

přičemž v lepším slovníku bude ještě poznamenáno, že gotten se používá spíš v americké angličtině. Do dneška jsem věděl taky jen toto. Ale teď jsem cosi hledal, a místo toho co jsem hledal jsem našel následující věc:

Here’s what David Crystal says about The gotten/got distinction in
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (p.311)

Gotten is probably the most distinctive of all the AmE/BrE grammatical differences, but British people who try to use it often get it wrong. It is not simply an alternative for have got. Gotten is used in such contexts as

  • They’ve gotten a new boat. (= obtain)
  • They’ve gotten interested. (= become)
  • He’s gotten off the chair. (= moved)

But it is not used in the sense of possession (= have). AmE does not allow

  • I’ve gotten the answer.
  • I’ve gotten plenty.

but uses I’ve got as in informal BrE. The availability of gotten does however mean that AmE can make such distinctions as the following:

  • They’ve got to leave (they must leave) vs
  • They’ve gotten to leave (they’ve managed to leave)

I’d add that Crystal’s I’ve gotten the answer isn’t starred if it means I have figured out the answer, rather than I have the answer.

The key is the overlap between the Possessive use of have and the Perfect use of have, plus the fact that one of the senses of get is come to have. If one has come to have a cold, for instance, then one has a cold, and the AmE usage of has got means that one is currently infested, due to the present relevance aspect of the Perfect. This is so common that kids regularly use got without have or even -’ve to mean have, and young kids even think it’s the regular verb for possession, as witness such constructions as He gots new shoes.

Faced with the overwhelming interpretation of (ha)ve got as simply have, AmE has innovated a new past participle gotten to be used whenever other, non-possessive forms of get are intended.

If one is simply speaking of the acquisition of something, for instance, rather than the current possession, one says I’ve gotten ….. in AmE since I’ve got implies that one still has it, and therefore focusses on the current Possession rather than the Perfective acquisition. And all of the idiomatic uses of get, like the get-Passive of get married, the Inchoative become/come to be inherent in get tired, the Concessive of get to go that Crystal mentions, etc. use gotten as their participle. Whereas any construction, even an idiomatic one like have to (= must) where one can use have equally well, use got as the participle.

Weird, but that’s English for you.

~~~

Potřebuje to komentář? Snad ani ne. Nedělám si iluze, že si to zapamatuji, a proto to dávám sem, třeba si to jednou znovu přečtu :-)


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Jak se anglicky řekne “zlatý padák”?


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Úterý, 10. Únor 2009, rubrika Angličtina

Dneska kratičký článeček, spíš pro mě, abych si to zapamatoval, anebo abych si aspoň zapamatoval že jsem si to napsal na blog, abych to tady našel až to zapomenu :-)

Tomu čemu my říkáme zlatý padák, tedy tomu když (obvykle vysoký manažer) dostane při vyhazovu z práce ranec peněz na rozloučenou, tomu se v anglickém světě říká

golden handshake

A světe div se, dal jsem to pro jistotu do gůgla (to já radši vždycky dělám, než napíšu nějaký nesmysl), a synonymum je prý golden parachute :-) To je náhoda, co?


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Co to znamená “white lie” aneb dabing ničí filmy


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Úterý, 12. Srpen 2008, rubrika Angličtina

Zaslechl jsem jeden dialog ze seriálu, na který se dívala přítelkyně. Dva lékaři, jeden běloch a druhý černoch, se hádali, protože běloch předtím řekl pacientovi-černochovi, že se mu určitě brzy uleví, protože mu dal lék, který se má dávat jen bílým pacientům. Černochům by se měl dávat jiný, méně dobrý, ale jemu dal ten lepší - bělošský, a tam mu určitě brzy bude lépe.

No a v tom dialogu, o kterém mluvím, obviňoval černý lékař toho bílého lékaře z rasizmu, nadával mu, že pacientům lže, protože žádné dvojí léky nejsou, říkal něco ve smyslu: “vy bílí si myslíte, že nám černým nemůžete říkat pravdu, protože bychom ji neunesli”. A ten bílý lékař se hájil slovy: “to byla bílá lež“.

Je myslím celkem jasné, že v originále bylo “white lie“. Jenže pojem “white lie” znamená trošku něco jiného než “bílá lež”. White lie je něco jako milosrdná lež, neškodná lež, kterou říkáme nejčastěji kvůli tomu člověku, kterému ji říkáme (třeba partnerce řekneme: “dneska ti to moc sluší”, i když si v duchu myslíme, že včera ji to slušelo mnohem víc).

Takže překlad do češtiny byl v tom seriálu podle mého názoru úplně špatný. Jenže i kdyby to přeložili jako “milosrdná lež”, tak by to ztratilo něco z původního důvtipu. V originále to totiž znělo jako dvojsmysl - jako lež bílých lidí, a zaroveň jako milosrdná lež. A to myslím opravdu přeložit nejde. Takže učme se anglicky, ať si můžeme vychutnávat dialogy v původním znění. Dabing ničí filmy (výjimka potvrzuje pravidlo, ale myslím že v produkci z 21. století je už těch výjimek jako šafránu).


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Co to znamená “posh”


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Úterý, 22. Červenec 2008, rubrika Angličtina

Slovo posh se v Anglii používá poměrně často, spousta lidí aspoň zhruba ví co znamená, ale málokdo zná historii vzniku tohoto slova.

Posh se používá jako přídavné jméno a znamená něco jako snobský nebo nóbl. Když je něco posh, tak je to velmi drahé a luxusní, když je někdo posh, tak je velmi bohatý a utrácí za věci, které si běžný smrtelník nemůže dovolit.

Například:
I stayed in a posh hotel = Bydlel jsem v drahém luxusním hotelu
I have a few posh friends = Mám několik nóbl přátel.

Slovo posh pochází z relativně nedávné historie a ve skutečnosti vzniklo jako zkratka výrazu Port Out Starboard Home, tedy: “ven levobok, domů pravobok”. Tento výraz se používal v dobách, kdy Anglie měla své kolonie v Asii a mnoho zámožných obchodníků tam jezdilo uzavírat obchody s čajem, kávou a podobně. Protože cesta trvala velmi dlouho a klimatizace ještě neexistovala, v kajutách na jižní straně lodi bylo pořádně horko a tak všichni chtěli mít kajutu na severní straně, to znamená při cestě z Anglie do Asie na levoboku a při zpáteční plavbě na pravoboku. To by ale nešlo, a tak to provozovatelé lodí vyřešili tak, že udělali něco jako dnešní business class a economy class. Kdo si zaplatil několikanásobně dražší cestu v business class, měl jízdenku označenou zkratkou POSH, do jeho posh kajuty mu nesvítilo a takovým váženým posh cestujícím se dostalo náležitě váženého posh zacházení.

Obyčejní smrtelníci, co si nemohli tento luxus dovolit, měli kajuty SOPH, tedy při cestě na východ na slunečné straně na pravoboku, a při cestě zpět na západ měli pro změnu kajuty na slunečné straně na levoboku, takže se pořádně ohřáli. Zkratka SOPH se ale nepoužívala, zato posh zdomácnělo i v běžné angličtině a používá se dodnes.